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Wednesday, May 25, 2011

The Calendar of the French Revolution

The French Revolution in 1789 was supposed to create a new order in France. Out with aristocratic tyranny, in with republican democracy! Liberté, égalité, fraternité!

Well, not quite. As part of the process of ousting monarchy, the French Revolution swept away many of the trappings of the Ancien Régime, or attempted to. One of the things they changed was the calendar.

Various versions of the revolutionary calendar existed from 1789 until 1792. But the dates were confusing. What was the start date, January 1, 1789, or July 14, 1789 (the storming of the Bastille)? Since financial transactions especially suffered from this confusion, the legislature made a final decision in 1792 when the French Republic was established. By naming 1792 Year One, the Calendar of the Revolution is in reality the Calendar of the Republic. In France, the same calendar is known as both calendrier républicain as well as the calendrier révolutionnaire.

The Calendar of the Revolution consisted of twelve months of thirty days each and started at the autumnal equinox. The months received new names derived from nature, the nature mainly the weather around Paris. The years are written in Roman numerals.

From Wikipedia:

Vendémiaire in French (from Latin vindemia, "grape harvest"), starting 22, 23 or 24 September
Brumaire (from French brume, "fog"), starting 22, 23 or 24 October
Frimaire (From French frimas, "frost"), starting 21, 22 or 23 November

Nivôse (from Latin nivosus, "snowy"), starting 21, 22 or 23 December
Pluviôse (from Latin pluvius, "rainy"), starting 20, 21 or 22 January
Ventôse (from Latin ventosus, "windy"), starting 19, 20 or 21 February

Germinal (from Latin germen, "germination"), starting 20 or 21 March
Floréal (from Latin flos, "flower"), starting 20 or 21 April
Prairial (from French prairie, "pasture"), starting 20 or 21 May

Messidor (from Latin messis, "harvest"), starting 19 or 20 June
Thermidor (or Fervidor) (from Greek thermon, "summer heat"), starting 19 or 20 July
Fructidor (from Latin fructus, "fruit"), starting 18 or 19 August

The calendar changes didn't end with the months. Within each month were three weeks of ten days apiece, called décades.

The year ended with five extra days to fill in the discrepancy between the order of the French calendar and the disorder of the physical year, which refused to use less than 365 days (or 366 days in leap years).

In the French Calendar of the Revolution, today, May 25, 2011 is 5 Prairial an CCXIX. A Gregorian-Revolutionary Calendar converter is here. (use Internet Explorer).

The adoption of the final form of the new calendar didn't end France's calendar woes. The French still had to communicate with the outside world which used the Gregorian calendar. The onus of translating between two calendars added another level of tedium and confusion to the dating of events.

The Calendar of the Revolution came to an end some thirteen years after its adoption, when Napoleon declared the day after 10 Nivôse An XIV as January 1, 1806.

Thank you all,

Picture is the Calendrier républicain de 1794 from Wikipedia

Friday, May 20, 2011

Guest Maria Hamilton: Mr. Darcy!

Linda Banche here. Today I welcome Maria Hamilton and her Pride and Prejudice retelling, Mr. Darcy and the Secret of Becoming a Gentleman. Here she tells us about our absolutely, without a doubt, most favorite in all the world Jane Austen character, Mr. Darcy. And Elizabeth, too.

Leave a comment with your email address for a chance to win the copy of Mr. Darcy and the Secret of Becoming a Gentleman which Sourcebooks has generously provided. Maria will select the winner. Check the comments to see who won, and how to contact me to claim your book. If I cannot contact the winner within a week of the selection, I will award the book to an alternate. Note, Sourcebooks can mail to USA and Canada addresses only.

And the winner Maria selected is OregonKimm! OregonKimm, if I do not hear from you by June 9, 2011, I will award your prize to an alternate. Congratulations, and thanks to all who came over.

Welcome Maria!

1) Tell us what you find most attractive about Mr. Darcy.

I am always drawn to Mr. Darcy because he is such a wonderful mix of contradictions. He exudes control but often acts impulsively. He appears to value the rigid rules of proper behavior but seldom follows society’s dictates. He seems to embody the archetype repressed Englishman but is actually seething with passion and has a streak of mischief.

For instance, Darcy makes clear that he would not allow his sister to walk unescorted through the wood, but secretly admires Elizabeth for doing so. He judges Elizabeth’s family harshly for failing to exhibit the social niceties while he is simultaneously giving offense to most of Hertfordshire by failing to exert himself at conversation or dance. He wants any man who would court his sister to do so only with her guardian’s blessings but asks Elizabeth to marry him without any regard for the propriety of the situation or her father’s wishes.

This might make a lesser man seem hypocritical, but we instinctively know that Darcy behavior stems from the fact that he is torn between two competing images of himself. He is trying to uphold his family name and what he perceives as the obligations that go with it, while also trying to act in a manner that might help him obtain his happiness. We feel his pain when it appears that he cannot do both. We see glimpses of the more relaxed man when he tells Caroline Bingley and Elizabeth in an almost flirtatious manner that their walking about the room will give him a better opportunity to admire their figures. Similarly, we can almost hear the war within himself during his disastrous proposal at Hunsford.

In the end, though, my attraction to him is simpler. I love Elizabeth and can identify with her as I am sure most readers do. That Darcy falls in love with Elizabeth almost despite himself, makes me love him. The image of him watching her every move in Hertfordshire seems to humble his character regardless of what foolish things he might say or do. Despite his professed control, he is like anyone else in love. Once you realize that about him, you cannot help but take pity on him when he tries to win Elizabeth regards and fails miserably.

2) Who's your second favorite P&P character?

As I mentioned above, I love Elizabeth, but as characters go, there’s none more interesting than Mrs. Bennett. It’s not clear whether she is a good mother or a terrible one. She is silly, harsh, embarrassing, prone to gossip, and exhibits an alarming amount of favoritism toward some of her children. She also loyally believes that any man would be lucky to marry any one of her daughters. Mrs. Bennett appears to be the story’s comic relief, except that her fear for her family’s precarious future makes her the one realist in the family and provides an explanation for her other flaws. Mrs. Bennett seems to have less sense than any other member of the family, but her concern for her family’s ultimate welfare demonstrates more wisdom.

3) Tell us what behavior was required of a Regency gentleman.

My new novel, Mr. Darcy and the Secret of Becoming a Gentleman, examines that very issue. In it, I try to explore how Mr. Darcy is motivated to change from a selfish individual to a fully realized member of society truly entitled to bare the moniker of gentleman. In my novel, I introduce the reader to Mr. Darcy immediately after Hunsford when he is attempting to overcome Elizabeth’s rejection and struggling with the knowledge that he has unfairly separated Mr. Bingley from Jane. He determines to correct his mistake much earlier and in the process of doing so has to return to Hertfordshire. He asks Jane for a private interview in order to determine if she still has feeling for Mr. Bingley and Mrs. Bennett assumes that Darcy has come to court Jane. Once Darcy is thrown into Elizabeth's company again, he vows to show her, by every civility in his power, that he that he can be a gentleman worthy of her esteem. As Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy become reacquainted, he pursues her and a slow courtship evolves as they attempt to see each other without their prior misunderstandings.

My story focuses on the dialog between Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth and tries to explore their developing intimacy. I wanted to see how the characters would react in some of the scenes that I wished were in the original book, like Darcy asking Mr. Bennett for permission to marry Elizabeth, Darcy telling Bingley that he was in love with Elizabeth and had wrongly separated him from Jane, Caroline learning that Darcy had asked Elizabeth to marry him (twice), and Darcy and Elizabeth transformations from suitors to husband and wife. In doing so, I wanted to keep to Austen original intent but give the characters enough the room to act in new ways. I think I accomplished my goal, but I will leave it to the readers to decide.

About the Author

Maria Hamilton has been a lifelong Jane Austen fan. Her first novel, Mr. Darcy and the Secret of Becoming a Gentleman, will be published by Sourcebooks in May of 2011. She is presently working on several projects including a new Pride & Prejudice variation. She attended Boston College where she earned a B.A. and then a M.A. in history. She received her J.D. from Harvard Law School and presently works as an attorney in Boston. Her interests include travel, cinema, the Red Sox, and bicycling. She lives in southern New Hampshire with her husband, two children, and her dog Poseidon.

If you are interested in Maria’s writing style, she has two Pride & Prejudice short stories available on the internet at

Mr. Darcy and the Secret of Becoming a Gentleman by Maria Hamilton

When Elizabeth Bennet refuses his hand, Darcy is devastated and makes it his mission to change. By every civility in his power, Darcy slowly tries to win her affections, but Elizabeth is not easily swayed. Darcy vows to unlock the secrets that will make her his. He curses himself for his social awkwardness and appearance of pride, and sets out to right the wrongs he’s done her family.

Elizabeth’s family and friends misunderstand his intentions, and being in Elizabeth’s presence proves to be both excruciating for the shy Darcy—and a dream come true. For the first time in his life, he must please a woman worth having, and the transformation leads him to a depth of understanding and love that he never could have imagined.

Monday, May 16, 2011

Regency Terms, the Cut, and Cut Direct

The Cut or Cut Direct

The term "cut" or "direct cut" is an English term which means a public snub. That term was used in the Regency, and it still in use today, so my British friends tell me. People who pretend they didn't see someone, when they clearly did, have cut that other person. An ordinary cut is less of an embarrassment than a cut direct, and less insulting, because it might be explained away by saying, "She didn't see me."

A cut direct, however, was a much greater insult, and impossible to explain away. If two people make eye contact, leaving no doubt whether or not they've been seen, and then one turns away without any acknowledgment, he or she has just given the cut direct. If this happens in public, at say, the promenade or a ball, the person being cut is more humiliated because there were more witnesses to the snub.

I've also read in older Regency Romance novels the term "cut him dead" which refers to making eye contact while in close proximity, and not across the room, and then turning away...all in a very public place.

A young lady who wishes to discourage the advances of unwanted or persistent suitors might use this tactic, but those with higher sensibilities may not have wished to be so hurtful or cause such humiliation. I'm sure a great number of cuts and cuts direct were dished out by those who were either just plain mean-spirited or had a strong grievance against the other person...just like today, only we don't use that term.

I like using these terms in my Regency romance novels because they, among other things, help create that believable Regency feel.

Do you have a favorite historical term?

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Guest Susan Adriani: Pride and Prejudice, Wickham and Georgiana

Linda Banche here. Today I welcome Susan Adriani and her Pride and Prejudice retelling, The Truth About Mr. Darcy. Here she tells us about her love of Pride and Prejudice, our favorite villain, George Wickham, and the world that Georgiana inhabited.

Leave a comment with your email address for a chance to win the copy of The Truth About Mr. Darcy which Sourcebooks has generously provided. Susan will select the winner. Check the comments to see who won, and how to contact me to claim your book. If I cannot contact the winner within a week of the selection, I will award the book to an alternate. Note, Sourcebooks can mail to USA and Canada addresses only.

And the winner Susan selected is Amy! Thanks to all for coming over.

Welcome Susan!

Why Pride and Prejudice?

I fell in love with the characters of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice via the BBC version of the 1995 movie, directed by Andrew Davies. The next day I went out, bought the book, and couldn't put it down.

While all of the characters in Jane Austen's novels are colorful and rich in detail and personality, there was just something about Elizabeth Bennet that captivated me from the start. Unlike Mr. Darcy, whose attraction began with her fine eyes and pleasing figure, my admiration was all for her wit, intelligence, and tenacity and individuality during a time when society demanded so much from women, while allowing them very little freedom to do much of anything.

Her circumstances were not ideal—one of five sisters with no dowry to speak of, an idle father, and a silly mother, yet she did not show resentment for her situation. She loved her sisters—even the three silliest ones—and managed to find amusement wherever she went. The fact that Mr. Darcy fell in love with her in spite of her unsuitable situation and connections, really sealed the deal for me.

George Wickham—what a rake!
I think we can all agree that George Wickham is a bit of a debauched rake, not to mention an opportunist, in gentleman's clothing or, in the case of Pride and Prejudice, regimentals. He manages to deceive Elizabeth Bennet, her family, friends, and the entire village of Meryton before he exposes his true nature by abandoning his post, defaulting on a debt of honor, and fleeing Brighton the following summer, all with Lydia Bennet in tow.

In my story, The Truth About Mr. Darcy, I'm afraid he's quite a bit worse. He is more vindictive, more debauched in his actions, and not at all inclined to mask his contempt for Darcy once he discovers his former benefactor's attraction to Elizabeth, which happens quite early in my book.
I certainly didn't set out to make Wickham into more of a villain than Jane Austen did in Pride and Prejudice, but he definitely ended up that way, and I blame it solely on him! While writing The Truth About Mr. Darcy, I found myself struggling with Wickham's character. Every single time I attempted to write him, he just wanted to show me a more calculating and vindictive persona. I spent so much time rewriting his scenes and trying to force him into a milder mold than he apparently wanted, until, finally, it became too much and I let him have his way.

Georgiana Darcy, and keeping her secret safe
We know that Mr. Darcy did everything in his power to keep his sister Georgiana's almost-elopement a secret from the world. Wouldn't you if your innocent younger sister was being sweet-talked by a man like George Wickham? To many of us, it may not appear as if Georgiana Darcy had done anything wrong; she didn't, after all, go through with the elopement, and willingly confessed all to her brother, who then confronted Wickham and ordered him to leave Ramsgate immediately. Case dismissed.

But it wasn't quite so simple back then. Georgiana was fifteen at the time, no more than a girl. Today, her actions would have been blamed on youthful indiscretion. In the regency period, however, girls were the sole preservers of their fragile reputations, and were held to a strict code of conduct—no intimate touching, no private conduct with a gentleman, only innocent conversation, and no letter writing, or gifts. Often their reputations were pretty much all they had, and a lack of restraint on the lady's part was considered scandalous. If the lady in question was raised in the bosom of a prominent, respectable, wealthy family like the Darcys, the consequences of ignoring the constraints placed upon her by society would be even more severe, in a social sense.

Darcy, as we know, was very concerned about the status of his family, and did not consider Elizabeth Bennet and her family's position in society equal to his own, even though her family was the principle family in the village—and neither did his aunt Lady Catherine de Bourgh. If Georgiana's indiscretion got out, the status of the Darcys, Fitzwilliams, and de Bourghs would have lessened considerably in the eyes of London's elite. His sister's disgrace (yes, it would have been considered just that) would have affected Darcy's chances of making a good match, as well as her own. While it is unfair to place the blame solely upon Georgiana, society at the time would have done precisely that and more. There was every possibility a young lady and her family would have been ostracized and shunned. In any case, their respectability as a whole would have been called into question, and I'm sure you can perfectly imagine what Lady Catherine would have had to say on that subject.

I've included an excerpt from my book The Truth About Mr. Darcy, where Georgiana reveals her involvement with George Wickham to Elizabeth. I hope you'll enjoy it as much as I've enjoyed being here today. Sincere, heartfelt thanks to Linda Banche for having me as her guest on Historical Hussies. Thank you so much—it was a genuine pleasure!

You're very welcome, Susan.


“George?” Elizabeth inquired with a frown. “Is that the name of the young man you knew?”

“Yes,” she said, blushing, “George Wickham. He was the son of my father’s steward. He and Fitzwilliam were always very close when they were younger. They attended Cambridge together but did not continue their acquaintance after that. I now suspect it was because of George’s nefarious habits.”

Elizabeth paled and felt as though she would be sick. “George Wickham!” she gasped. No wonder Fitzwilliam was so affected by his presence in Hertfordshire! It is a wonder he did not kill him that day in Meryton!

Georgiana hesitated. “Do you know of him, Elizabeth?”

Elizabeth slowly nodded, too horrified to speak.

“I was at Ramsgate for the summer with my companion, Mrs. Younge, in whose character my brother and I were both deceived,” Georgiana explained. “Fitzwilliam surprised me the day before I was to leave for Gretna Green with George. He was furious and demanded I end my engagement. I could not grieve him, Elizabeth. Fitzwilliam has raised me alone since I was a little girl. It was not long until George’s true nature revealed itself to me in any case. I am truly ashamed.”

“No. You have no reason to feel ashamed, Georgiana. You were very young at the time. Mr. Wickham preyed upon your innocence and your trusting nature. You cannot be held accountable for what he tried to do. Believe me, I am well acquainted with Mr. Wickham and his… expectations of young ladies.” Georgiana was startled by the bitterness in her voice.

They spent the next half hour in earnest conversation about Mr. Wickham until it was time for them to part and dress for their evening at the theatre, each lady feeling a little easier for having confided in the other and feeling a genuine bond of sisterly friendship that would only continue to grow deeper with time.

About the Author--Susan Adriani
Susan Adriani has been a fan of Jane Austen's works and her beloved characters for as long as she can remember. In addition to writing, she is a freelance graphic designer and illustrator. In 2007, after contemplating the unexplored possibilities in one of Miss Austen's books, Pride and Prejudice, she began to write her first story, The Truth About Mr. Darcy, formerly titled Affinity and Affection. With encouragement from fellow Austen enthusiasts, she continues and is currently at work on her second and third books. She lives with her husband and young daughter in Connecticut.

The Truth About Mr. Darcy by Susan Adriani
In this hot tale, Mr. Darcy confesses the truth about George Wickham right from the start, warning Elizabeth and the rest of Meryton about Wickham’s despicable character. Will his honesty change the way Elizabeth feels about him and his previous poor behavior? Will he still have to transform himself to win her love? And what will happen when scandal erupts?

Friday, May 6, 2011

Guest Nan Hawthorne: Why We Can Thank the Massacre at Mersivan for the Europe We Know

Linda Banche here. Today's guest is Nan Hawthorne and her medieval historical novel, Beloved Pilgrim. Here she tells us about the doomed Crusade of 1101.

The Crusade of 1101 is clearly not as well known as its predecessor, the First Crusade, which it was meant to bolster, but it may have had a more significant and lasting impact on European history than it or any of the several other numbered Crusades. It was such a monumental failure, it’s crowning moment the Battle of Mersivan Plain, that not only the future of the Crusades but also the economic and political development of Europe was utterly changed.

In brief, the Crusade of 1101 was called by Paschal, the successor of Pope Urban, who died before he learned of the capture of Jerusalem, at the request of the triumphant leaders of the First Crusade as well as Alexios II of Byzantium to cement the success by repelling those “Paynim” forces that might threaten it.

The Crusade of 1101 consisted of four basic expeditions. The first two, led at the outset by Archbishop Anselm of Milan and Raymond de St. Gilles, a hero of the First Crusade, set out from Nicomedia in Byzantium together and were almost immediately diverted north and east instead of south to the Holy Land. The Lombard contingent insisted that the entire body of crusaders head for where they believed Bohemond of Antioch was imprisoned. In spite of Raymond’s intense rivalry with Bohemond, he had no choice but turn the whole procession away from their chosen route. The result, after a few months, was that of the more than 6,000 pilgrims and fighters all but a hundred or so were either captured at Merzifon Plain and sold into slavery or massacred. The few survivors were the household knights of Raymond and the other leaders, such as Stephen of Blois, Constable Conrad, and Stephen and Odo of Burgundy, all of whom slipped away leaving their men at arms and all the clergy and peasants to the Turks. The two remaining expeditions of the crusade not knowing of the massacre set out from Constantinople separately even from each other and met similar fates in deadly ambushes. Only a score of these crusaders made it out alive, and again it was only the leaders who did. These four arms of the Crusade never even made it out of Turkey.

Even before the Crusade of 1101 was over, the first deadly impact was felt. The third and fourth expeditions were attacked by the newly reinforced and confident follows of Kilij Arslan, the Sultan of the Turks, and his allies. Demoralized after the successes of the First Crusade, the Muslim forces had fragmented. With Arslan’s overwhelming success at Mersivan, they were reenergized. War leaders flocked to Arslan ‘s banner. Immediately after Merzifon they rode to head off the two remaining expeditions and crushed them utterly.

The next impact was the destruction of the political power of those leaders fully or tangentially involved in the Crusade of 1101. Alexios II never recovered from the disaster and lost influence in the region rapidly. Many of the leaders of the Crusade itself may have escaped but died soon thereafter, Raymond from fever several years later, and the others in battle after returning to the Holy Land rather than return home to Europe under a cloud.

With the recapture of the roads south from Byzantium the Turks effectively cut off all future land routes to the Holy Land. No longer could vast armies ride across country, but instead were forced to find sea routes. The initial difficulty for this type of transport led to something entirely unanticipated. Those nations, namely the city-states of Venice, Genoa and Milan, took advantage for the need for their maritime resources and acumen to build themselves up into the primary rulers of the Mediterranean Sea. One can attribute the development of these unprecedented powers to the disastrous Crusade of 1101.

Tancred of Antioch no longer had the Byzantine Empire on his frontier, so his own preeminence in the Holy Land was assured, changing irrevocably the power base of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its allied cities.

There were successes to come for Crusaders in later crusades but it was never again so easy to dominate the Saracen world or to hang onto gains in the Holy Land. In some ways the Crusade of 1101 acted like a vaccination against disease. Like the body that develops stronger defenses against a weaker disease-causing organism, the success of the Turks and their allies over the ineffectual leadership of the Crusade of 1101 brought them together in stronger alliances and numbers. The Crusaders could never rest on their success again.

Source: Runciman, Steven (1951) A History of the Crusades, vol. 2: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187, Cambridge University Press.

Watch Nan's trailer about Beloved Pilgrim here, or link to it directly on YouTube at

Nan Hawthorne is the author of “Beloved Pilgrim”, a novel of the doomed Crusade of 1101. It is available at Amazon and at Smashwords. Visit the author’s web site at for more on the novel and the historical events and personages.

About the Author - Nan Hawthorne

Nan Hawthorne is a historical novelist who lives in the beautiful Pacific Northwest with her husband and doted-upon cats. She has been in love with history and historical fiction since, at four, she discovered the Richard Greene “The Adventures of Robin Hood” television series. She wrote her first short story at seven, then launched into the letters and stories with a teen friend that ultimately became her first novel, AN INVOLUNTARY KING: A TALE OF ANGLE SAXON ENGLAND (2008). The author of one nonfiction work on women and body image, she now concentrates primarily on historical novels set in the Middle Ages. Her latest novel, BELOVED PILGRIM, looks at gender identity and self-realization during the chaotic and doomed Crusade of 1101. She writes several blogs on historical themes, owns the catalog and also Internet radio station, Radio Dé Danann.

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

Lip Color and Lipstick Invention

In ancient civilizations, women crushed colored stones and used them to decorate their faces and lips.
Egyptians used a mixture of dye and iodine, which was sometimes dangerous. Cleopatra, though, was said to wear lip color made by crushing carmine beetles, and adding that dye mixture to a base made of ants. The addition of fish scales added a much-admired shimmery effect.
Later, in medieval Europe, the Church banned the wearing of lipstick. Cosmetics were worn only by prostitutes.
During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, a pale face and bright red lips came into fashion, and this time a product less dangerous was used. Lip color now was made of beeswax and plant dye.
During Victorian times, when lipstick was once again banned, this time by Queen Victoria, women resorted to drastic measures to redden their lips, such as chewing them, biting them, and even using brandy to bring out the color.
In 1880s Paris, a perfume manufacturer sold the first commercially successful lipstick. The perfume store was the House of Guerlain, established in 1828 on the rue de Rivoli. The lipstick was in the form of pomade, and was made with grapefruit mixed with butter and wax. For the next several decades, the House of Guerlain continued the enterprise, selling their popular cosmetics and perfumes. In the twentieth century, the perfume family was bought out, but even today, production continues. Guerlain products are considered by many to be the best, and alas, some of the priciest cosmetics and perfumes in the world.

Monday, May 2, 2011

Regency Weddings

While few dresses have survived the 200 years since the Regency Era, Princess Charlotte's silver wedding dress of 1816, still exists. Princess Charlotte of Wales, born Charlotte Augusta on 7 January 1796 – 6 November 1817, was the only child of Princess Caroline of Brunswick, and George, Prince of Wales who later became King George IV.

The Museum of London recently exhibited this gorgeous creation. This elaborate gown in silver lace, called "net" in those days, lays over white silk and cut in the very popular apron style so popular during the Regency Era. Plenty of silver lace also trims this gown. I find it interesting that this dress doesn't look exactly as the dress depicted in the etching published in the May 1816 issue by La Belle Assemble:

As we have been gratified with a sight of the wedding dresses of this amiable and illustrious female, a particular yet concise account of them cannot but be acceptable to our fair readers.

The Royal Bride, happy in obtaining him whom her heart had selected, and whom consenting friends approved, wore on her countenance that tranquil and chastened joy which a female so situated could not fail to experience. Her fine fair hair, elegantly yet simply arranged, owed more to its natural beautiful wave than to the art of the friseur; it was crowned with a most superb wreath of brilliants, forming rosebuds with their leaves.

Her dress was silver lama on net, over a silver tissue slip, embroidered at the bottom with silver lama in shells and flowers. Body and sleeves to correspond, elegantly trimmed with point Brussels lace. The manteau was of silver tissue lined with white satin, with a border of embroidery to answer that on the dress, and fastened in front with a splendid diamond ornament. Such was the bridal dress …

Princess Charlotte died following childbirth at the age of 21. If she had outlived her father and grand father, she would have become Queen of England. Though her life was short, she is still remembered 200 years later in books, magazines and museums.